Ignition Slave Relay
Apr/2017 R. Kwas
When adding high current loads such as an Overdrive or Lights, etc. to a vintage Volvo, I always remind installers to consider the entire current path. When doing that, we find that for Ignition powered Loads, if we simply take power from (for instance) Fuse 1 of a 122 (or Fuse 1 of a P1800), that Load Current would also flow through the Ignition Switch. Not so much of an issue if this is for a modest load like a phone charger or similar. However, if this is a high power load, like an Overdrive Solenoid or Lights, we would be well advised to spare the vintage switch that additional duty.
I realize this was the OE arrangement, but knowing it is not a simple (or inexpensive) operation to replace the Ignition Switch as it is part of the Ignition Switch / Armored Cable / Ignition Coil Assy, anything we can do to reduce electrical wear and tear on the switch by routing the additional current through a contact external to the Ignition Switch is a good thing!
We do this by simply installing an inexpensive "Ignition Slave Relay", as shown below. This relay is essentially slaved to the Ignition Switch, such that it is closed when the Ignition Switch is ON, and the actual Ignition Switch is only subjected to the modest relay control current. The beefy working contact of the relay switches the High Load Current, as shown here:
Ignition Slave Relay Current paths are highlighted. Reader will notice that the additional current which the vintage Ignition Switch is subjected to, is the modest coil current only (Green). The high Load Current (Blue) is not going through the Ignition Switch, but instead, is controlled by the high current working contact of the relay. Ignition Switch is spared the additional high current, so its service life will not be affected. An external Snubber Diode (A) is shown for the relay, and another is shown for the Load.
Why two different Snubber Diode types? A high current diode is required only for high inductance loads like Overdrive Solenoid or an Electric Cooling Fan or such.
Details: A 4 or 5 terminal relay must be used as an Ignition Slave Relay! A 3 terminal relay internally connects the coil (relay control circuit) and working contact circuit, so is not suitable, because if the whole point here is to separate the relay coil and high current contact circuits, this cannot be done using the 3 terminal type.
Comparing 3 and 4 and 5 terminal relays. Note: When relay has an internal Snubber Diode, operating polarity must be
with SD cathode (term 86) to positive. When no internal SD is present, relay may be connected with either coil polarity.
Location of the Ignition Slave Relay could be under the dashboard or under the hood...installer's preference...just remember to protect any wires going through the firewall, or around other sharp metal edges, with sleeving. Relays are marvelous things...so says your 50 year old Ignition Switch!
In the application shown above, the Ignition Slave Relay is necessary to control power, and Terminal 87 (Normally Open) is used. When installing a Headlights-On Reminder, Terminal 87a (Normally Closed) is used when Ignition is OFF, to switch Chassis connection for use by the circuit. Note that separate relays would have to be used as one switches power, the other switches chassis. See also: http://www.sw-em.com/electrical_upgrades-buzzers_and_beepers.htm
Good Relay info: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/automotive-relays-fundamentals-testing-kiril-mucevski
The Ignition Slave Relay is also a good supply for audio power amps...which seem to draw lots of stand-by power...if they are powered by the Ign Slv Rel, one wouldn't even need to worry about turning it OFF! See: http://www.sw-em.com/Battery%20Notes.htm#high_parasitic_load_audio_amp
This information is Copyright © 2017. Ronald Kwas. The terms Volvo and Bosch are used for reference only. I have no affiliation with either company other than to try to keep its products working for me, help other enthusiasts do the same, and also present my highly opinionated results of the use of their products here. The information presented comes from my own experience and carefully considered opinion, and can be used (or not!), or ridiculed and laughed at around the watercooler, or worshipped, at the readers discretion. As with any recipe, your results may vary, and you are, and will always be, in charge of your own knuckles, and future!
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