Emergency Flasher Retrofit for 122/1800
R. Kwas 6/99, revised 07/2015, revisions On-Going! 11/2016 added 1800/SWF update
Retrofitted 140 Style E-Flasher Switch in a 122
Retrofitted E-Flasher Switch in a 122 using the Nesan switch
Retrofitted E-Flasher Switch in an 1800 using the SWF switch
Notes on Making In-Line Connections
This article consists of notes on the subject and installation procedure for retrofitting an Emergency Flasher switch. We occasionally have a O.E. switches (used), as found on some 1800s and early 140s, and seen in picture below available. As these are getting more difficult to find, I am trying locate and stock other good option(s), see further below.
Background: In the late '60s, the Emergency Flasher (also sometimes known as: "four-way flashers") came into general use on new vehicles. By tying both right and left directional indicator circuits together, the Emergency Flasher was created, giving the car double the visual impact when activated. The original equipment Emergency Flasher switch was really an add-on, installed typically on late production 122s and 1800s by the stateside dealer, who mounted it (not particularly attractively) below the dashboard in the fan switch area.
Given the miniscule size of Directional Signals compared to later cars, it is a very worthwhile safety upgrade to retrofit a vintage Volvo with this feature. Shown in the picture below, is one of the switches as used in early 140s (by German manufacturer SWF, with all wires removed, except the three required for a retrofit installation). These quality switches had their own Blinker Element, and a knob with an indicator lamp very similar in appearance to those of the 122 and 1800, so will fit in nicely.
140 style Emergency Flasher switch by manufacturer SWF.
A three terminal Blinker Element is shown in place, plugged onto the back.
In order for the switch to be instantly accessible, and to make for a nice, neat, O.E looking installation, I have successfully installed the switch in place of the cigarette lighter on both 122s and 1800s. The 1800 installation shown below is in a new hole - the Lighter hole was already used for auxiliary lighting and not available.
Emergency Flasher installed in 122S.
Emergency Flasher installed in an 1800.
When doing the upgrade, the amount of room available behind mounting is an important consideration...at 3 3/4" deep behind the dashboard because of that Blinker Element, these switches are fairly long, and so won't fit just anywhere. Measure twice before cutting metal to prevent clearance disappointments!
SWF PN500.298 Switch and (3 terminal) Flasher Element separated. Terminal numbering is visible (but not identifiable in this picture, sorry!).
I'll have to take and insert some better pictures in which the terminal identifications are more legible.
Emergency Flasher Upgrade Procedure (122/1800) using the 140 Style Switch:
This procedure has been prepared with the utmost care. However, it is strictly a guide to be used in conjunction with normal, cautious shop practice. I cannot accept liability for your actions. Work Safely.
Special tools required: 140 style Emergency Flasher Switch, various Crimps and Crimping tool, 7mm or 9/32" nut driver.
Refer to electrical diagrams: 122 Wiring Diagram, 1800 Wiring Diagram
1. Prepare switch wiring: Remove all wiring except for a Blue wire on L terminal, a Green wire on R terminal, and a Red wire on terminal 30.
Internal connection details of the 140 style Emergency Flasher switch SWF PN500.298 with Flasher Element.
2. Disconnect vehicle Battery before proceeding.
3. If mounting the Emergency Flasher Switch in hole originally intended for cigarette lighter, remove lighter, disconnecting power wire from back of lighter, and using nut-driver at back of ignition switch, removing other end of this wire from terminal 54 (Ignition Power). If not replacing lighter, do not touch its' power wire. In both cases, connect the red wire from Emergency Flasher Switch terminal 30 to terminal 30 (Battery Power) of ignition switch (has heavy black wire and possibly others). Include an in-line fuse-holder with a fuse rated at 10A.
4. Mount switch. Be aware, switch is 3 3/4" long behind panel. If mounting in former cigarette lighter hole, washers should be used to center the switch as well as keeping it from falling through the (much oversized) hole. The switch bushing also requires a good electrical connection to the dashboard sheetmetal, as it is the ground return current path for the indicator lamp in the knob.
5. Locate Wires [on a 122 - Blue (left directional signal circuit) and Green (right directional signal circuit) - on a 1800 Green/Red (left directional signal circuit) and Green/White (right directional signal circuit)] under dashboard [located by steering column harness (make careful incision through sleeving to gain access), or at connector (in case of 122) or harness (in case of 1800) of wires which run up A pillar, over roof and to rear of vehicle] and connect to these, by first cutting, then using butt crimp and suitable crimp-tool to reconnect wires, adding the appropriate wire which route to emergency flasher control switch (see also: Notes on Making In-Line Connections below). Route wires along existing harnesses taking care to stay clear of moving linkages under dashboard such as wipers and steering column.
6. Double check wiring, resolve any items of question before proceeding.
7. Reconnect vehicle Battery.
8. Verify operation of Emergency Flasher control. Note: The indicator lamp in the knob should flash, but the instrument panel directional indicator will not.
[Comments on this procedure are welcome]
Addendum for 544 / 210 or even 444 / 544 (6V) vehicles.
Although I haven't personally upgraded one of these vehicles, it is certainly still a very good idea.
Refer to Wiring Diagrams: 544/210 Wiring Diagram, 544 (6V) Wiring Diagram, 444 (6V) Wiring Diagram.
From the 544/210 and 544 (6V) and 444 wiring diagrams, the color codes are similar to the 122...Green for Left, Blue for Right directional circuits, and these wires should be easily accessed at harness going to the directional indicator.
Reference Information: Nesan Emergency Flasher Switch
As the 140 style switches have been getting more difficult to find, I have started looking for a reasonably priced, similarly styled alternative...what I found as a possibility, is a Nesan switch (Made in Turkey, from what looks like probably originally a German design) with a similar looking lighted knob, shown below. This switch does not have a separate Blinker Element associated with it, so wiring it into a vintage Volvo is a bit more complicated as it needs to use the existing Blinker Element (this means seven total wires instead of just three as with the 140 style switch!), but the switch has the necessary contacts and switching function that it will work out well.
I am looking into stocking these switches...it looks like a quality component, but I will pass my final judgment once I get one in my little hands to inspect. Please e-mail to check availability.
UPDATE: The Nesan switch is of decent, usable quality, but no-name clones are now on the market...I was appalled by their construction and internal quality...these are typical china-shit product which looks just like the real thing, but is utter TRASH! Buyer Beware!
Below is a marked-up copy of the 122 Wiring Diagram incorporating this switch. The color of wiring at switch shown in this mark-up would be my suggested colors, as they are consistent for the most part, with harness colors. Note that original Red wire at Blinker Element must be cut as shown. Simple butt crimps should be used to connect the E-Flasher Sw wiring to these cut ends. I recommend butt crimps for the in-line taps on other wires also, see: Notes on Making In-Line Connections below.
I have left the file large so that it can be copied and printed with high detail for reference while carrying out the work.
Retrofitted E-Flasher Switch in a 122 using the Nesan switch (uses the existing Blinker Element):
Notes on Circuit Function: In the OFF position, upper part of switch routes Ignition Power to Blinker element normally, and L and R circuits, connected to lower part of switch, are separate and not connected to each other. When switch is placed in the ON position, upper part of switch powers Blinker element by Battery Power, by way of in-line fuse (recommended), lower part of switch ties L and R circuits together, and to output of Blinker Element, as well as Indicator in the knob.
Emergency Flasher can be used at any time (as it should be able to), since it is powered by Battery...Ignition ON or OFF, and Indicator lamp in knob will flash along with Directional Signal lamps at vehicle corners. Normal Directional Indicator in Instrument Panel will not flash along when E-Flasher is activated. This also applies to the 1800 installation below.
Retrofitted E-Flasher Switch in an 1800 using the SWF switch with its own Blinker Element (vehicle will have a total of two Blinker Elements after this modification!):
Notes on Circuit Function: As the Emergency Flasher Switch has its own Blinker Element, all it needs is Battery Power from Ignition Switch Terminal 30 and connection to the Right and left Blinker circuits. Three wires (plus a good connection to the mounting panel to return the Indicator current), but that's it!
Flasher will of course be available any time, but if switch is engaged with Ignition ON and also one of the Directional Indicators, there may be some wierd timing of Flashers as they are powered by two sources interacting, but nothing will be damaged...simply turn off the engaged Directional Indicator and the Emergency Flashers will blink at the corners as expected.
Notes on Making In-Line Connections:
It's always preferable to make connections to wires at an end, but sometimes, this is just not practical or possible...so when making the necessary connections to existing wires in the middle of a run, or in-line, for a reliable connection, crimp connection to the middle of an existing cable. I recommend using butt crimps to restore the connection, and adding the new wire. Best practice when crimping a wire is to cut, and strip the wire, apply ACZP to the stripped strands, and crimp them into a proper butt crimp of the correct size-range for the wire gauge (taking into account that the one side will have more strands because of the added wire), using a quality crimping tool...of course, when I want the absolute best and most permanent, reliable crimped connection I can make, I solder it !! (then protect with heat shrink tubing)...because there's just no beating a Gas-Tight-Joint! See also: 740_harness_meltdown.htm#permanent_wiring_repars
I recommend very much against the Scotchlok clip-on, Insulation Displacement Connectors (IDC) shown below, also known amusingly as "Strom-Diebe" (Current-Thieves) by the Germans (maybe because it reminds them of the way we tapped into the Russian's telephone line running under East Berlin during the cold war. See the fascinating story of: Operation Gold or Turning a Cold War Scheme into Reality ...in any case, see below for my explanation of why these are a "Scourge upon the automotive electrical land!", and should never be used.
...because I totally agree with it, I will also show this picture I saw on Bill Pollack's site...:
Excerpt from my entry on Tom Bryant's Blog:
(yellow highlights are not a part of my original post but added for emphasis):
"I don’t agree with your positive assessment of the “Clip-On” [Schotchlok] connectors you show. They work by cutting and displacing wire insulation. Unfortunately, they also cut into the conductor (they’re actually designed to, with a sharp edge and an undersized slot for the conductor), so they are also damaging the conductor and decreasing its cross-section (BAAAAD) [to say nothing of the potential damage in the form of stress-riser they are without a doubt adding to the conductor...and that in a vibration environment!! Egad!!]. They are merely OK (short-term) under laboratory conditions only (clean, dry, non-moving), but in a vehicle (and long-term), the connection they make is totally susceptible to moisture, and vibration – at least! I REFUSE to use them…I throw them out (and I don’t throw ANYTHING out), and I replace them when I run across them.
Again my rule is: If I want the BEST crimp connection I can get…I SOLDER IT(!), so
functionally, I’m OK with your solder/shoegoo technique of adding a connection
in the middle of a wire, but for a cleaner final appearance, I would use
heat-shrink tubing immediately over
[freshly applied] silicon RTV (which had not cured). As the
tubing shrinks, it compresses the fluid RTV around the insulation, effectively
resealing it completely (just as your goo does)…only a bit neater.
If you must make a permanent connection with very good reliability (only second to the soldered connection) to a wire with no access to its terminations (the preferred place for adding a connection!), and also no ability to solder, cut wire, strip both ends, add new stripped wire, crimp into butt-crimp (suitable for gauge of double wire) after dipping twisted strands into ACZP (see: http://www.sw-em.com/anti_corrosive_paste.htm ). Additional protection by heat shrink is optional. "
Shown below, from: http://www.powerboxer.de/elektrik/66-stromklau ...a BMW motorcycle enthusiast site, a graphic of why NOT to use these little electrical land-mines-in-waiting. Their function is based on first cutting through the insulation, then into the stranded conductor (YIKES! Cutting into or simply nicking the conductor is one of the first BIG NO-NOs anybody having anything to do with electricity learns about...and that in a vibration environment!! No thank you!). Graphic is in German, and he calls it Stromklau - a variation on "Electrical Thief", but even non-German speakers will get a lot from the graphics showing how critical dimensions of the wire are for these to work at all...
Conductor are shown as a solid orange (1) and this is not really correct...this is oversimplified...a solid conductor would not be able to flatten its shape as shown (2, 3) for this connection strategy to work at all. Conductor should be shown as multi-stranded type (added better graphic below!), so that as it is forced into the connection slot, slot splays open a bit under the force, strands also rearrange a bit into the available reduced space, and those conductors contacted by the sharp edges as the conductor is pressed into place are actually cut and weakened. Add some vibration, and you can guess the inevitable outcome!
Scotchloks are available for different wire gauges, but 4, 5, 6 below show how conductor OD is critical to allow this concept to work at all...at 4, conductor OD is too big to force into the available slot (it would result in some combination of splaying the contact slot open, as well as cutting the conductor...a mechanical mess with unpredictable electrical function!), at 5, conductor is marginally too small resulting in a contact with low cross-sectional area (poor current handling capability!), and possibly intermittency, finally at 6, conductor is much too small resulting in not fully cutting through insulation in the first place. With that many possible ways to fail, both short and long-term, the reader can see why I hate them...
Source: http://www.powerboxer.de/elektrik/66-stromklau My mark-ups.
Here is a more detailed diagram of what happens when using Insulation Displacement Connectors...you get the cut conductor strands for free immediately, and Lord knows what in the future!
IDCs are for weenies who don't know how to solder...and they should never, ever be used in a vibration environment...you have been warned!!
External material is attributed. This article is Copyright © 1993-2016. Ronald Kwas. The terms Volvo, SWF, Nesan and Scotchlok are used for reference only. I have no affiliation with these companies other than to try to keep their products working for me (except for the Scotchloks, which I wouldn't use even to start a bonfire!), help other enthusiasts do the same, and also present my highly opinionated results of the use of various products and techniques here. The information presented comes from my own experience and carefully considered opinion, and can be used (or not!), or ridiculed and laughed at, at the reader's discretion. As with any recipe, your results may vary, and you are, and will always be, in charge of your own knuckles!
You are welcome to use the information here in good health, and for your own non-commercial purposes, but if you reprint or otherwise republish this article, you must give credit to the author or link back to the SwEm site as the source. If you don’t, you’re just a lazy, scum sucking plagiarist, and the Boston Globe wants you! As always, if you can supply corrections, or additional objective information or experience, I will always consider it, and consider working it into the next revision of this article...along with likely the odd metaphor and probably wise-a** comment.